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For all three bacteria, infection can be transmitted between horses in any of the following ways:

• direct transmission during natural mating;

• direct transmission during teasing. An infected teaser can transmit disease to mares through contact with his genitalia;

• indirect transmission during teasing. A teaser can transmit infected vulval discharge between mares through genital or naso-genital contact;

• transmission to mares if semen used for AI comes from infected stallions or has been contaminated with the bacteria during semen collection or processing;

• indirect transmission via the hands and equipment of staff or veterinary surgeons who have handled the tail or genitalia of an infected horse.