Freedom from Disease

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Following infection with any of the three bacteria, breeding activities should only be resumed with approval from the attending veterinary surgeon, and in the case of T. equigenitalis, of the APHA, who must be satisfied that infected and in-contact horses have been investigated, treated as appropriate and subsequently cleared on the basis of negative swabs.

The first post treatment swabs should be taken seven or more days after the treatment has ended. All post treatment swabs should be tested by aerobic and microaerophilic culture and by PCR. All positive isolates of K. pneumoniae should be capsule typed where they are identified on post-treatment samples, irrespective of whether pathogenic K. pneumoniae was isolated prior to treatment. All positive K. pneumoniae PCR results will need culture tests also performed to provide bacteria for capsule typing unless being tested, in the same laboratory, for capsule typing by PCR test. 

Mares

Starting not earlier than seven days after cessation of treatment for infection has ended, three clitoral swabs should be taken (including at least one taken during oestrus) at intervals of at least seven days and two endometrial swabs should be taken during two oestrous periods and tested by both aerobic and microaerophilic culture and by PCR tests.

In respect of maiden mares whose pre-screening clitoral swab only (i.e. endometrial swab negative) was positive for K. pneumoniae (capsule types 1,2 or 5) or P. aeruginosa, pre-treatment, three clitoral swabs (including at least one taken during oestrus) must be taken but only one endometrial swab (taken in oestrus) is required.

All results must be negative before any breeding activities resume. If any result is positive, further investigations should be undertaken in conjunction with the attending veterinary surgeon and for T. equigenitalis with Defra/APHA or the BEVA AVS (see Appendix 11).

 

Stallions

Starting not earlier than seven days after cessation of treatment for infection, three sets of penile swabs (see Diagnosis – types of swab) should be taken at intervals of at least seven days and tested by aerobic and microaerophilic culture and by PCR tests and negative results confirmed. All results in treated stallions must be negative before any breeding activities resume.


Thereafter, the first three mares mated or inseminated by the stallion should have clitoral swabs taken three times at intervals of at least seven days, starting two days after mating or insemination. If any result in the mated mares is positive, breeding activities should cease again immediately, and further investigations should be undertaken in conjunction with the attending veterinary surgeon and, for T. equigenitalis, with Defra/APHA or the BEVA AVS (see Appendix 11).